TTVs are derived from Q1-Q17 Kepler data. x-axes: “Observed Tc” (Mid-Transit Time): EXOFAST’s best-fits from Normalized PDCSAP_FLUX Kepler light flux vs. time (BJD_tdb - 2454900) data. y-axes: “(O – C)”: difference between Observed Tc and the Calculated Tc from the graphically obtained linear ephemeris.
Figure 3.: Added combination of Figures 1. and 2. [Plot error bars = ± 2.71 min.]
Numerous literature and major Tc#, Tc, and TTV tabulation references can be found on my "Summary" webpage following the table.
29 May 2015
Kepler KOI-1783 (KIC-10005758) 4-(or more?)-Planet System
Discussion: In the example of KOI-1783.01, after a sinusoidal curve-fit of the (O-C) vs. Time data showed (Figure 1. below) a periodicity (P_ttv) of 259.57 ± 15.27 days (259.83 days was observed in the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) of the same data), a plot (Figure 2.) of the Residuals also gave a good sinusoidal curve-fit with a periodicity of 915.51 ± 36.08 days (LSP: 893.93 days). The added combination of the two sinusoidal curves, arrayed in Figure 3., produces a complex overall curvature reasonably consistent with the initial data. It is certainly possible (see recent work of Lithwick and others) that some of this unusual curvature obtains from eccentric orbits (and maybe even precessing eccentric orbits) of planetary objects in this system. If KOI-1783.02’s orbit (period: 284.06 days) is too remote to produce a TTV in KOI-1783.01, is also possible that a total of 4 planets (with only KOI-1783.01 and 1783.02 transiting) in near-circular orbits are mutually-interacting to give the TTV distribution observed. KOI-1783.02 shows too few points, only 4, to unambiguously define a TTV.