TTVs are derived from Q1-Q17 Kepler data. x-axes: “Observed Tc” (Mid-Transit Time): EXOFAST’s best-fits from Normalized PDCSAP_FLUX Kepler light flux vs. time (BJD_tdb - 2454900) data. y-axes: “(O – C)”: difference between Observed Tc and the Calculated Tc from the graphically obtained linear ephemeris.
Kepler KOI-1856 (KIC-11570749) 4-(or more?)-Planet System
Discussion: In the example of KOI-1856.01, after a sinusoidal curve-fit of the (O-C) vs. Time data showed (Figure 1. below) a periodicity (P_ttv) of 854.78 ± 39.89 days (835.25 days was observed in the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) of the same data), a plot (Figure 2.) of the Residuals also gave a good sinusoidal curve-fit with a periodicity of 232.14 ± 5.86 days (LSP: 232.88 days). Similarly, the Residuals-of-the-Residuals also gave a good sinusoidal curve-fit (Figure 3.) with a periodicity of 193.58 ± 3.57 days (LSP: 192.88 days). The added combination of all three sinusoidal curves, arrayed in Figure 4., produces a complex overall curvature reasonably consistent with the initial data. While it is certainly possible (see recent work of Lithwick and others) that some of this unusual curvature obtains from eccentric orbits (and maybe even precessing eccentric orbits) of planetary objects in this system, it is also possible that at least 4 planets (with only KOI-1856.01 transiting) in near-circular orbits are mutually-interacting to give the TTV distribution observed.